Our Sources

Research: Why is Evidence Important?

We are all bombarded with a plethora of information about almost anything.

A click or voice command brings streams of possible answers to our questions.

But who do we believe?  How do we know that the information we are being given is actually true?

A flick through many websites shows that although lots of information is provided, we are asked to take it at face value. We are asked to believe what we are being told is true, without any substantiation or evidence.

So, What To Do?

Many of us now want to know “Why?”

Many of us are beginning to question what we are told. We need to know “Why?”. If we go to a doctor with an ailment, we want to know the details (sometimes!) and what the treatment options are.

We also want to know what the evidence is for the efficacy of a particular treatment. We are starting to become savvy consumers. Is this miracle cream really going to make me look 10 years younger? Where is the evidence?

We believe that providing evidence to support any claims made about specific products or ingredients demonstrates transparency and a belief in that product or ingredient.

Evidence, Evidence, Evidence!

Here at Purely Skincare, we only make claims that can be supported by scientific evidence.

We do, however, acknowledge that many ingredients used traditionally in various cultures do not have any scientific evidence, as little or no research has been done. We are not denying that the ingredients may have a particular effect, but that there is currently no evidence to support it. Where this is the case, we state what the traditional uses are, and how they have been used.

Chemists are beginning to unravel how the basic chemical structure and constituents give the essential oil its properties, helping us to understand how it works in our bodies and providing evidence for remedies which have been used cross-culturally for thousands of years. New research is starting to be carried out and published, giving us an insight into their potential actions and effects – exciting times!


We have collected the sources we have used throughout our website and put them all in one place for you to refer to. Where we can, we have used links so you can click on them and go straight to the source.
If you find a link that is broken, or a reference that is missing, please let us know!

  1. Soil Association https://www.soilassociation.org/organic-living/beauty-wellbeing/what-is-organic-beauty
  2. Rush, A. & Muir, M. (2012). Maintaining skin integrity in bariatric patients. British Journal of Community Nursing. Vol. 17 (4), p154-159.
  3. Simpson, E.L., Chalmers, J.R., Hanifin, J.M., Thomas, K.S., Cork, M.J., McLean, W.H.I., Brown, S.J., Chen, Z., Chen, Y. and Williams, H.C. (2014). Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol. 134, (4) 818-23.  Also available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180007/
  4. Hoffman, J. & Hoffman, M. (2008). Green: Your Place in the New Energy Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan; St. Martin’s Griffin.
  5. Soil Association (2007) Campaign for Clarity-come clean about beauty. https://soilassociation.org/media/11393/c4c-report-3.pdf
  6. Cosmetic Organic Standard (COSMOS). https://cosmos-standard.org/
  7. Shaw, D. and Shiu, E. (2002). The role of ethical obligation and self‐identity in ethical consumer choice. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 26 (2), 109-116.
  8. Dijksterhuis, A., Smith, P., van Baaren, R.B. and Wigboldus, D.H.J. (2005). The Unconscious Consumer: Effects of Environment on Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol 15 (3) 193-202.
  9. Soil Association https://www.soilassociation.org/organic-living/beauty-wellbeing/whats-not-okay/
  10. Telegraph (2013) https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10164452/Warning-over-epidemic-of-skin-allergies-from-chemical-in-cosmetics-and-household-products.html
  11. García-Gavín, J., Vansina, S., Kerre, S., Naert, A. and Goossens, A (2010) Methylisothiazolinone, an emerging allergen in cosmetics? Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 63 (2), 96-101. Also available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4197884/
  12. TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network – national Institute of Health). https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+8200
  13. Barański, M., Średnicka-Tober, D., Volakakis, N. and Seal, C. (2014). Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 112, (5), 794-811.
  14. Knuesel, O., Weber, M. and Suter, A. (2002). Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Advances in Therapy. Vol.19 (5), 209-18.
  15. Leu, S., Havey, J., White, L.E., Martin, N., Yoo, S.S., Rademaker, A.W. and Alam, M. (2010). Accelerated resolution of laser‐induced bruising with topical 20% arnica: a rater‐blinded randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 163 (3), 557-563. Summary also available online at  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09813.x
  16. Aromantic Ltd. (2016). Organic Beeswax Safety Data Sheet.
  17. Fratini, F., Cilia, G., Turchi, B. &  Felicioli, A. (2016) Beeswax: A minireview of its antimicrobial activity and its application in medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 9(9): 839–843. Also available online at  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764516301407
  18. Belsito, E. L., Carbone, C., Di Gioia, M. L., Leggio, A., Liguori, A., Perri, F. (2007). Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 55, 7847–7851. doi: 10.1021/jf070997q
  19. Caddy, R. (2000) Aromatherapy: Essential Oils in Colour. Guildford, Amberwood Publishing.
  20. Bowles, E.J. (2003). The Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic Oils. Allen & Unwin.
  21. Tadokoro, Y., Horiuchi, S., Takahata, K., Shuo, T., Sawano, E., and Shinohara, K. (2017). Changes in salivary oxytocin after inhalation of clary sage essential oil scent in term‑pregnant women: a feasibility pilot study. BMC Research Notes, Vol.10, 717-724.    https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-3053-3.
  22. Price, S. (2000) Aromatherapy Workbook: A complete guide to understanding and using essential oils. London, Thorson.
  23. Ehrhardt, P., Nissen, H-P., Bremgartner, M., and Urquhart, C. (2005). Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin International Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 44, 151–157.
  24. Nica, A.S., Caramoci, A., Vasilescu, M., Ionescu, A.M., Paduraru, D. and Mazilu, V. (2015). Magnesium supplementation in top athletes – effects and recommendations. Medicina Sportiva, Journal of the Romanian Sports Medicine Society. Vol. XI, (1), 2482-2494.
  25. Essential Oils Direct. Dead Sea Salts Safety Sheet.
  26. Belch, J. and Hill, A. (2000). Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(supplement), 352S–6S. Also available online at  https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/71/1/352s/4729570
  27. Mashhadi, N.S., Ghiasvand, R., Askari, G., Hariri, M., Darvishi, L. and Mofid, M.R. (2013). Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence. International Journal of Preventative Medicine, 4 (Suppl 1), S36–S42. Also available online at http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC3665023
  28. Liu, Y., Heying, E. and Tanumihardjo, S.A. (2012). History, Global Distribution, and Nutritional Importance of Citrus Fruits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Vol.11, 530-545. Also available online at  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00201.x
  29. Swamy, M.K., Akhtar, M.S., and Sinniah, U.R. (2016) Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3012462. Also available online at  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206475/
  30. Price, L, Smith, I, and Price, S. (1999) Carrier Oils for Aromatherapy & Massage. Stratford upon Avon, Riverhead.
  31. Lin, P. W-K., Chan, W-C, Ng, B. F-L. and Lam, L. C-W. (2007). Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: a cross-over randomized trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 405–410.
  32. Sayorwan, W, Siripornpanich, V, Piriyapunyaporn, T, Hongratanaworakit, T, Kotchabhakdi, N, and Ruangrungsi, N. (2012) The Effects of Lavender Oil Inhalation on Emotional States, Autonomic Nervous System, and Brain Electrical Activity. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 95 (4), 598-606
  33. Srivastava, J.K., Shankar, E. and Gupta, S. (2010). Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with a bright future (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports, 3, 895-901. Also available online at  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/
  34. Dawid-Pać, R. (2013). Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Advances in Dermatology and Allergology. Vol. 3: 170–177. DOI: 10.5114/pdia.2013.35620. Also available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834722/
  35. Montserrat-de la Paz, S., Fernández-Arche, A., Ángel-Martín, M. and Dolores García-Giménez, M. (2002). The sterols isolated from Evening Primrose oil modulate the release of proinflammatory mediators. Phytomedicine, Vol. 19, (12), 1072-1076.
  36. Ming-Chiu, O., Yu-Fei, L., Chih-Ching, L. and Shyi-Kuen, W. (2014). The Effectiveness of Essential Oils for Patients with Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol. 20, (10), https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2013.0453.
  37. Aromantic Ltd. (2016). Organic Shea Butter Safety Data Sheet.
  38. Katz, U., Shoenfeld, Y., Zakin, V., Sherer, Y., and Sukenik, S. (2012). Scientific Evidence of the Therapeutic Effects
    of Dead Sea Treatments: A Systematic Review. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 42:186-200.
  39. Borseth, K. (2008). The Aromantic guide to unlocking the powerful health and rejuvenation benefits of vegetable oils. Moray, Aromantic Ltd.
  40. Engin, K.N. (2009). Alpha-tocopherol: looking beyond an antioxidant. Molecular Vision 2009; 15:855-860. Also available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672149/
  41. Therkleson, T. (2014). Topical Ginger Treatment With a Compress or Patch for Osteoarthritis Symptoms. Journal of Holistic Nursing. Vol 32 (3), 173-182. Also available online at  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230973/
  42. Gov.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/modern-slavery
  43. Stronger Together. https://www.stronger2gether.org
  44. Cortés-Rojas, D.F., Fernandes de Souza, C.R., and Pereira Oliveira, W. (2014). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol 4. (2) 90-96. Also available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819475/
  45. Kamatou, G.P., Vermaak, I., and Viljoen, A.M. (2012). Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule. Molecules, Vol. 17, 6953-6981.
  46. Katsikantami, I., Sifakis, S., Tzatzarakis, M., Vakonaki, E., Kalantzi, O., Tsatsakis, A., and Rizos, A. (2016). A global assessment of phthalates burden and related links to health effects.Environment International, Vol. 97, 212–236.
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  48. http://www.nationalbeeunit.com/index.cfm?pageid=93
  49. Marchese, A., Orhan, I., Daglia,M. , Barbieri, R. , Di Lorenzo, A. , Nabavi, S., Gortzi, O., Izadi, M., and Nabavi, S. (2016). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food Chemistry, Vol. 210, 402–414.
  50. https://www.skincancer.org/publications/photosensitivity-report/phototoxic-reactions-versus-photoallergic-reactions