It is sometimes not possible to have completely organic products as some ingredients cannot be certified as organic, for example, water, or mineral salts. Therefore the Dead Sea Salts we use in our Mineral Soaks and Scrubs cannot be certified as organic, and instead are labelled as natural. Some ingredients, such as the coco-caprylate in our Silky Dry Oil, are completely natural (certified by COSMOS), but an organic version is not available.
Organic, natural and ethical
All our organic ingredients are COSMOS certified organic by the Soil Association, and all our natural ingredients are COSMOS certified natural.
Organic Arnica Oil
Inci: Arnica montana flower extract, in Helianthus annuus hybrid oil, with Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.
Arnica montana, commonly known as Leopard’s Bane, is a perennial herb that grows in woods and mountain pastures and is indigenous to central Europe. It is also native to Siberia and North West of North America. Although it has been found in England and Southern Scotland, it is not thought to be indigenous to Britain. Organic Arnica oil is made from a cold maceration of organic Arnica flowers in organic high oleic Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil, where the flowers are steeped in the oil for some weeks and stirred during the process.
Arnica has long been a popular remedy for bruises, wounds, pain, swellings, rheumatic pain, the pain and inflammation of phlebitis and similar conditions. It is the classic herb widely used before and after sports, it reduce swellings, bruises, sprains, pulled muscles and torn ligaments.
Arnica montana contains 10 different constituents that have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects. The plant’s essential oils contain thymol and various ethers of thymol, which are antiseptic and anti-inflammatory, and mostly found in the roots and root stock. The essential oil stimulates the mopping up and re-absorption of blood from the bruised tissue and speeds up the replacement of damaged tissue with new cells 14,15. In addition, the high level of carotenes found in the oil promote healing. Arnica oil is high in calendulin, carotene, waxes, tannins, phosphorous and vitamins A and C.
Because the oleic (Omega 9) content is high (between 75-90%), Arnica oil is able to withstand heating and does not go rancid easily. In addition, Our supplier adds a potent antioxidant, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) leaf extract to prolong the shelf life of the Arnica oil. It is also soft and smooth, promoting skin suppleness and gives a warming feeling to the skin. This makes it ideal to use in our Active Muscle Rub.
Inci: Cera alba
Beeswax is a product made from the honeycomb of the honeybee and other bees. It consists primarily of myricyl palmitate, cerotic acid, esters and some high-carbon paraffins. A natural emollient, beeswax keeps skin soft, making it an excellent moisturiser. Beeswax creates a protective layer that will slow down trans-epidermal water loss and protect the skin from external damaging agents16. It has also been shown to have antimicrobial actions and protective properties for skin and mucous membranes 17. Importantly, over several hours, the beeswax will naturally wear off, so that skin can ‘breathe’ and is not blocked, as happens in products made with petrochemicals such as mineral oil.
Bees are vulnerable to the varroa mite which is a parasite that lives on the bee’s body. It is common for beekeepers to use pesticide strips in the hive to keep varroa mites at bay, but tests on some of these strips have shown disturbing levels of undesirable chemicals. Our supplier of natural organic beeswax obtains it from beekeepers who value pesticide-free products, and therefore do not use these pesticide strips . As the beeswax is certified COSMOS organic, we are also confident that it has been harvested according to strict organic principles, the protection and health of animals (and insects) are kept close to heart.
Our Active Muscle Rub, Soothing Chamomile Balm and Lip Balms all contain organic beeswax, to provide a rich, moisturising, protective barrier to your skin and thickening the balms to just the right consistency.
Organic FCF (Furocoumarin free) Bergamot Essential Oil
Inci: Citrus Aurantium Bergamia Fruit Oil
Organic Bergamot FCF essential oil is obtained by cold expression of the fruit peel of Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (the Bergamot plant). The expressed essential oil has a fresh, citrus and slightly spicy top note aroma, with an uplifting and refreshing effect. Importantly, we use FCF Bergamot, which means that it is free from furocoumarins, a group of chemical constituents that can cause photosensitivity. Using FCF Bergamot makes it much more suitable for skin care products, substantially reducing the risk of photosensitivity18.
Studies have shown that Bergamot has several biological properties, such as such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, with beneficial effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems19. It has been used for centuries as an antiseptic and remedy for fever and as a digestive stimulant after loss of appetite. Bergamot is the added ingredient in Earl Grey tea, giving it a distinctive aroma and taste. It is also a major component of the original Eau de Cologne composed by Farina at the beginning of the 18th-century and is still used in perfumery to provide depth to the fragrance.
The uplifting quality of Bergamot CFC makes it an ideal addition to the exotic Frangipani in our Spirit range.
Organic Black Pepper Essential Oil
Inci: Piper nigrum Fruit Oil
Organic Black Pepper essential oil is obtained by steam distillation from the dried slightly unripe fruits of the vine, Piper nigrum. It has a fresh, dry, woody fragrance with a warming, spicy middle note.
Black Pepper essential oil is rich in beta-caryophyllene, providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties 20,21 . It is effective in relieving muscular pain 37, and it also gives a warm feeling on the skin, perfect for adding to our Active Muscle Rub and Active Muscle Mineral Soak for post-workout therapy or to soothe your aching muscles and joints.
Organic Clary Sage Essential Oil
Inci: Salvia sclarea
Clary Sage essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops and leaves of the Clary Sage plant, Salvia sclarea. It has a sweet, nutty and green herbaceous fragrance, with a top note. Clary Sage essential oil has traditionally been used to reduce skin inflammation and regulate natural sebum production, making it suitable for all skin types. It is also said to strengthen and tone the skin and has an astringent action20.
With its oestrogen-like properties, Clary Sage has long been used as a uterine tonic for amenorrhoea and menopausal symptoms. Because of this effect, it is contraindicated for use in pregnancy, and recent research has supported this by showing that it increases oxytocin levels during late pregnancy22. We therefore advise against using products containing this essential oil whilst pregnant to avoid the risk of inducing early labour. Clary Sage, is, however, valuable for balancing emotions23.
Organic Clove Essential Oil
Inci: Eugenia Caryophyllus Fruit Oil (also known as Syzygium aromaticum)
The spice beloved in winter food and drink, clove, has traditionally been used in food preservation and medicine because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The essential oils are extracted from the mature flower buds of the clove tree, which grows in tropical countries such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Madagasgar.
Recent studies of the clove bud essential oils have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against viruses, bacteria, and fungi, with clear evidence of potent antioxidant properties. These effects are mainly attributable to the high eugenol content in the distilled essential oil 45,46. Clove has a strong spicy aroma with a base note and is an ideal addition to protect your lips in our Winter Spice Lip Balm.
Our Coco-Caprylate is a manufactured from coconut and is certified COSMOS Natural and awarded the EcoCert mark. We use it in our Silky Dry Oil range because it is an excellent natural alternative to volatile silicones like cyclomethicones, providing a dry, silky feel, without blocking the skin’s pores.
Dead Sea Salts
Inci: Sodium chloride
There are many benefits to home bathing in Dead Sea Salts, such as offering relief from various skin conditions, stimulating circulation, and easing muscle and joints39. Research has shown that that bathing in high magnesium Dead Sea Salts enhances hydration of the outer layers of the skin and improves skin barrier function. This leads to softer skin and reduced inflammation24. It is also recommended for athletes as part of their training and recovery 25.
Over millions of years, the hot dry air and high evaporation rate have contributed to the high salt concentration present in the Dead Sea, making it one of the saltiest lakes in the world. Compared to the 3% salt content of ordinary sea water, Dead Sea water contains 32% salts with relatively high concentration of minerals such as magnesium, calcium, bromide, and potassium (see table below)26 .
Table: Comparison of Salt Concentration mg/L
|Dead Sea Water||Mediterranean Sea||Ocean Water|
Inci: Magnesium sulphate
Magnesium sulphate, often called Epsom Salt, is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulphate and is a commonly occurring mineral.
We include Epsom salts in our Mineral Soaks because it can soothe and relax muscle aches. It is recommended in a post-exercise bath for athletes to encourage the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscles, resulting in reduced muscle pain and stiffness 25.
We use it in our Mineral Scrubs because it is a natural emollient and exfoliator, soothing dry skin whilst gently removing dead skin. When it is added to water, the pH of Epsom Salt is 6.0 (5.5 to 7.0), which is very close to your skin’s natural pH of around 5. Most soaps and cleansers are more alkaline, disrupting the skin mantle and leading to dry and irritated skin, so adding Epsom salt to our Mineral Soaks and Mineral Scrubs helps to redress this imbalance.
Organic Evening Primrose Oil with 0.5% Vitamin E
Inci: Oenothera biennis oil
Oenothera biennis, commonly known as the Evening Primrose has bowl-shaped, fragrant, yellow flowers which open in the evening in summer and autumn and die within 24 hours. They can be found in North America and Europe, often on wasteland and roadside kerbs.
Evening Primrose oil is cold pressed from the seeds of the evening primrose flower and is a dry, thin oil that is easily absorbed by the skin, helping it to retain moisture. It contains a high quantity of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and is a good source of Omega 6 fatty acids. GLA is a duounsaturated fatty acid closely related to the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. Both are substances the body needs to create prostaglandins 27.
Deficiencies in prostaglandins will cause skin dryness, loss of suppleness and wrinkling. The skin will age more quickly and be less tolerant to sunlight, and any damage to the skin will take longer to heal. The addition of Evening Primrose oil to our skincare products helps the body to create prostaglandins, reducing the effects of environmental exposure. Combined with its anti-inflammatory actions36, Evening Primrose oil is excellent for sensitive and mature skin and perfect for our Massage Oils, Silky Dry Oils, Lip Balms, and Soothing Chamomile Balm, as a superb moisturiser that doesn’t leave an oily feel behind.
To maintain its freshness, our supplier has added 0.5% Natural Vitamin E to the Evening Primrose oil, because as a natural antioxidant, it helps to prevent oxidation and increase the oil’s shelf life.
Inci: Plumeria acutifolia flower extract
Plumeria acutifolia are some of nature’s most exotic and beautiful plants. They are native to the Far East, Africa and the beautiful Hawaiian Islands. When visitors arrive to the Hawaiian Islands, they are presented with beautiful garlands or leis made from Plumeria (Frangipani) flowers, as an offer of friendship.
The fragrance of Frangipani is complex, described as heavy, sweet, floral and green, with an exotic hint of spice. It is used in high end perfumery and in aromatherapy skin care.
It has a gorgeous aroma, sensual and long-lasting and a favourite in Spa massages. Our Spirit range is infused with this delightful oil.
Natural Frangipani oil is extremely expensive, as it cannot be extracted by steam distillation as many other essential oils can. When it is extracted naturally by enfleurage, fresh, fully opened Frangipani flowers are carefully laid on trays covered with a layer of hard oil, such as coconut oil, or shea butter). The essential oils from the flower petals slowly migrate to the palm oil, and the process is repeated until the palm oil is saturated with the essence of Frangipani. The Frangipani oil then has to be separated from the palm oil, which may be done by using cane sugar alcohol, which evaporates leaving only the pure Frangipani enfleurage. This process is very labour intensive and only a small amount of oil is produced. Therefore, most Frangipani available at the moment is obtained as an absolute, where the Frangipani oil is extracted from the petals with hexane (called a concrete), from which the oil is separated using ethanol.
Organic Ginger Essential Oil
Inci: Zingiber officinale root oil
Zingiber officinale originated in South-East Asia and is also found in Nepal, Australia, Nigeria, and Fiji. It has yellow-red flowers and elongated, aromatic leaves, but the edible parts of the plant are the rhizomes (tubers or roots). Zingiber officinale and the common name ginger are derived from the Sanskrit word ‘sinabera’, which translates as ‘horn-shaped’, and refers to these rhizomes.
Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties, both as a whole root, or as an essential oil 28 . We use it as a warming essential oil, in our Active Muscle Mineral Soak, along with organic Black Pepper essential oil, to soothe aching joints and muscles and stimulate circulation42. A small amount is also used in our Winter Spice Lip Balms, to evoke the aromas of wintertime.
Organic Grapefruit Essential Oil
Inci: Citrus paradisi peel oil (also known as Citrus grandis)
Citrus paradisi is part of the citrus family and grows in clusters on the tree, like grapes, which is where the name grapefruit is said to originate. The fruit is varied, from yellow, pink and red in colour, with taste ranging from sweet to sour. They all, however, are rich in vitamins A and C, with calcium, magnesium, and potassium29.
Organic Grapefruit essential oil is obtained by cold expression of the outer peel of the grapefruit, with a sharp, clear and refreshing top note aroma. Along with other citrus essential oils, it has demonstrated antimicrobial actions30. The fruity sharpness of Grapefruit is perfect to cut through the richness of our Fresh Mint and Zing & Zest Lip Balms, with the bonus of vitamins A and C to help protect the lips.
Organic Green Mandarin Essential Oil
Inci: Citrus reticulata peel oil
As with grapefruit essential oil, Citrus nobilis essential oil is obtained by cold expression, this time of the unripe (green) mandarin orange outer peel. It has a sweet, rich, fruity top note aroma and is a gentle oil, which can be used as a toner for oily skin or added to rich night creams.
Organic Jojoba Oil
Inci: Simmondsia chinensis Seed Oil
Jojoba oil is cold pressed from the seed of an evergreen desert bush, which can live up to 100 years. It is not really an oil but is a liquid wax that is easily absorbed by the skin. Jojoba has been grown and used by Native American tribes for many years and is also now grown in Argentina, Peru, Australia and Israel.
Jojoba is an excellent oil, with many uses. It has a molecular structure similar to the skin’s own sebum and is balancing to the acid mantle of the skin. It is therefore a superb moisturiser and skin protector, rich in Omega 9 and is very stable, with a long shelf life. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, as it contains myristic acid31.
We use Jojoba oil in our Mineral Scrubs with Dead Sea Salts, to exfoliate, clear pores, moisturise and protect the skin.
Organic Lavender Essential Oil
Inci: Lavandula angustifolia Oil High Altitude/Lavender Fine Population)
Lavandula augustifolia is a common, beautiful plant originating in the Mediterranean, but now found widespread across the world. It thrives in any poor or moderately fertile, free-draining soils in full sun, and is available in several different varieties. Lavender essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fresh flowering tops of the Lavender plant.
We use lavender that has been grown at high altitude (above 1400 meters), which allows the plant to produce more esters, giving the oil a fruitier aroma. When the oil is also distilled at high altitude, the lower air pressure means that a lower temperature can be used in distillation, therefore more of the very volatile chemicals come through from the plant to the oil. This produces a rich, floral, characteristic fragrance with a middle note that is very rounded, sweet, green and fruitier than other lavenders.
The healing properties of Lavender have been utilised for many centuries, such as to treat burns, relieve pain37, aid sleep, relax the body and mind, and as a strewing herb in medieval times, to repel insects and fragrance the air. It was very popular as an addition to washing clothing for its aroma and ability to repel moths. Indeed, the word “lavender” originates from the Latin “lavera” (to wash) and is also where we derive the word “laundry”.
Lavender is a calming, and relaxing essential oil, 32,33 which also tones and revitalises the skin and helps to diminish light scarring. We harness these properties in our Cocoon range, to envelop you in a delightful state of deep relaxation.
Organic Lemon Essential Oil
Inci: Citrus limon peel oil
The lemon fruit was first brought to Europe from Arabia and Persia in the Middle Ages by the Crusaders. As with other citrus fruits, Citrus limon is rich in vitamins A and C, with calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Once it was realised that vitamin C could prevent the skin disease, scurvy, it became an essential part of a sailor’s rations on long sea voyages.
Organic Lemon essential oil is very useful in a range of applications, with stimulating, toning and antiseptic properties30. Combined with the nourishing oils of organic Evening Primrose, Sweet Almond and Shea nut butter, lemon (along with grapefruit and green mandarin) essential oil makes a mouth-watering Zing & Zest Lip Balm. As many citrus essential oils can be mildly phototoxic, we use just a small amount in our lip balms (a total of 0.6%).
Organic Lemongrass Essential Oil
Inci: Cymbopogon schoenanthus Oil
Cymbopogon schoenanthus is a tropical grass, native to South and Southeast Asia, rich in vitamins and minerals. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fresh, finely chopped grass. It has a very refreshing, sweet, lemon top note aroma that is quite strong and long lasting.
Organic Lime Essential Oil
Inci: Citrus aurantifolia oil
The lime tree, Citrus aurantifolia, is believed to have originated in northern India and adjoining parts of Myanmar and is now cultivated throughout the tropics and in warm subtropical areas.
Traditionally, lime essential oil has been made from the cold pressed peel of the fruit. However, the resulting oil is high in coumarins (particularly bergapten), making it phototoxic. We use lime essential oil that has been obtained by steam distillation rather than cold pressing, which reduces the amount of esters and aldehydes and almost completely removes bergapten, making it much safer to use. The oil is extracted by steam distillation of the rinds after the lime fruit has been pressed to extract the juice.
Organic Peppermint Essential Oil
Inci: Mentha piperita
Mentha piperita is a member of the mint family, a familiar plant native across Europe. Peppermint is strongly aromatic, with stems and leaves flushed with purple. It produces terminal spikes of tiny, pale purple flowers in late summer that rarely set seed and has a wide range of uses, from teas and tisanes to insect repellents. It was originally treated as a distinct species but is now known to be a cross between Mentha aquatica (watermint) and Mentha spicata (spearmint).
Organic Peppermint essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the flowers, leaves, and stems of the herb, producing a penetrating, grassy, minty, cool, menthol top note aroma. It also has antimicrobial, analgesic37 and anaesthetic properties20. The cooling, menthol effect makes it ideal for our Fresh Mint Lip Balms.
Organic Roman Chamomile Essential Oil
Inci: Anthemis nobilis flower oil (sometimes known as Chamaemelum nobile)
Roman Chamomile is found across Europe and often referred to as English Chamomile. It grows up to 30cm tall and has white daisy flowers in summer and a delightful grassy, fruity apple aroma.
Having soothing and inflammatory properties, Roman Chamomile essential oil is perfect to use in balms and creams. It is one of the few oils that is safe to use on a baby in small amounts, and our Soothing Chamomile Balm is certified to use on babies over 1 month of age. It is also ideal to soothe dry, chapped skin, and helps to moisturise and calm skin affected by eczema and psoriasis.
Organic Rose Geranium Essential Oil
Inci: Pelargonium graveolens flower oil
Rose Geranium is originally from South Africa and is not actually a geranium at all but is a pelargonium. The confusion arises because they are also known as scented geraniums, but their flowers are unlike the usual geranium ‘cranesbill’ shape. Instead, they have small lavender or pink flowers with silvery green foliage.
Organic Rose Geranium essential oil is obtained from steam distillation of Pelargonium graveolens flowers, producing a middle note, crisp, sweet and rose aroma. Having high levels of alcohols and esters, it is a gentle therapeutic oil, with soothing, anti-inflammatory and balancing properties. As such, it is excellent for all skin types, especially mature skin20,23. Organic Rose Geranium essential oil combines beautifully with Organic Lavender essential oil in our Cocoon range of products.
Organic Rosemary Antioxidant
Inci: Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract
Rosemary antioxidant is one of the new-generation of antioxidants. The active components from Rosmarinus officinalis have been extracted using supercritical CO2, which produces an oil that more closely resembles the original plant’s chemical make-up. The avoidance of the very high temperatures that are used in steam distillation means that the oil is less likely to be altered from the original plant so supercritical CO2 extraction is considered to be a superior method.
To extract oils using supercritical CO2, the Rosmarinus officinalis leaf is placed in a chamber to which carbon dioxide (CO2) is added under pressure. This results in the CO2 developing liquid properties whilst still being in a gaseous state (supercritical), enabling it to act as a solvent and ‘pulling’ the oils and other constituents out of the plant matter. This method of extraction produces a totally pure and natural botanical CO2 extract, well known for its antioxidant properties.
Organic Shea Butter
Inci: Butyrospermum Parkii Butter
The Shea Tree, Butyrospernum parkii, grows wild on the West African savannah and can reach 20-25 metres in height. Each tree produces about 50kg of fruit per year, which is an important raw material for the people of West Africa. Shea butter is made from the pressed stones of the fruit (also called nuts). The butter is filtered after pressing to improve the colour and prolong the shelf life.
Shea butter is very high in fats, typically 3-9% palmitic acid, 34 -50% steric acid, 38-50% oleic acid (Omega 9), and 2-9% linoleic acid (Omega 6)38. It has traces of naturally occurring vitamin E and 5-10% phytosterols, which stimulate cell growth. If the amount of stearic acid is reduced to about 10%, the butter becomes Shea butter oil.
Shea butter is a superb emollient and is an excellent moisturiser, restoring the skin’s elasticity. It has protective and healing properties, especially for dry and damaged skin. It also contains low levels of natural SPF, which provides some daily defence against the damaging effects of UV light, whilst repairing cellular degeneration40. This makes it an excellent addition to our Lip Balm range.
Organic Sweet Almond Oil
Inci: Prunus amygdalus dulcis oil
The sweet almond tree grows up to 6-8 metres high, with white or red flower blossoms. We use organic cold pressed Sweet Almond oil, obtained from the ripe seed kernel of Prunus amygdalus dulcis. It is a mild, semi-fatty oil suitable for most skin types and contains naturally occurring vitamins A, B1, B2,B6, and E. Sweet Almond oil is an excellent emollient, alleviating and nourishing dry skin. It soothes inflammation and relieves itching caused by dry skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis31.
Sweet almond oil has a long ‘surface time’ which means that it is slowly absorbed by the skin and is therefore an excellent lubricant for whole body massage oil. It also softens the skin and is excellent for baby products. We utilise these properties in our Massage Oils, Mineral Scrubs, Soothing Chamomile Balm, Active Muscle Rub, and Lip Balms.
Organic Thistle Oil (Safflower Oil) High Linoleic
Inci: Carthamus tinctorius seed oil
Organic Thistle oil is also known as Safflower oil and is an excellent source of essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and 6), which make up over 80% of the oil content. The oil is obtained by cold pressing the seeds of the thistle, Carthamus tinctorius. This produces a short, dry, thin oil, which is very useful in combination with longer oils, to rebalance oily or large pored skin. The high content of linoleic acid (Omega 6) means that Thistle oil is very easily absorbed by the skin40.
It has 35-75mg per 100ml of naturally occurring vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol), together with high levels of vitamins A and B, with calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus31, making it a very nourishing oil. We use this nourishing organic Thistle oil in our Massage Oils, Silky Dry Oils, Soothing Chamomile Balm, Active Muscle Rub, and Lip Balms.
Natural Vitamin E
Inci: Tocopherol, in Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil
Our vitamin E is extracted from non-GM sources and contains a minimum of a 70% mixture of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols blended with organic Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) seed oil40. It is 100% natural and as an antioxidant, protects the skin from free radicals, helping to reduce the damaging effects of ultraviolet light.
Vitamin E molecules are absorbed easily via the skin and stimulate skin cells to enhance cell turnover and healing41 . We utilise these properties across our Balms, Lip Balms, Massage Oils, Silky Dry Oils and Mineral Scrubs to protect your skin, and as an antioxidant to prolong the shelf life of our products.
Organic Ylang Ylang Essential Oil
Inci: Cananga odorata
Cananga odorata has been part of Ayurvedic medicine for centuries. The Cananga tree originated in Indonesia and is now found in Madagascar, Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and the Comoros islands. The flowers are long-stalked, with six narrow, greenish-yellow drooping petals. Ylang ylang essential oil is obtained by full and uninterrupted distillation of the Ylang Ylang flower, producing a “Complete” intensely sweet yet slightly spicy, exotic floral fragrance with a base note.
Ylang ylang oil helps to regulate sebum production, so is very useful in facial products to balance over-dry or over-oily skin20. We include organic ylang ylang essential oil in our Life range, together with clary sage, lemongrass and lime essential oils to provide an energising and invigorating experience.